Bibi ka Maqbara, Aurangabad

Aurangabad : The City of Gates

Aurangabad, on the Deccan Plateau in Maharashtra, gets its name from the Mughal king Aurangzeb who made the city his capital. As per historical records it was earlier called Khirki/Khadki and Fatehpur too. Aurangabad also called the ‘City of Gates’. It is a gateway to architectural gems like UNESCO World Heritage Sites Ajanta and Ellora, as well as, other points of interest like Daulatabad known for its fort, Shirdi the frequented pilgrimage site and Paithan for its intricately woven Paithani sarees. It comes as no surprise that Aurangabad christened as ‘The Tourism Capital of Maharashtra’ with so many places of interest in its proximity.

The Journey

With Christmas vacations, what better excuse then to set off on another journey for travel and exploration with the family. After breakfast, we began our 4 ½ hours road drive from Pune via Ahmednagar, which ended at Aurangabad. After checking into our hotel and a quick wash, we zipped off to see the attractions of Aurangabad. The historical city with its monuments, forts, palaces and caves, protected by exterior walls and gates, exudes an old-world charm that is reminiscent of its rich heritage of a bygone era.

Aurangabad at Night
One of the many gates in Aurangabad city @Rafiq Somani

Bibi Ka Maqbara

The Bibi ka Maqbara also referred to as “Dakkhani Taj or Taj of Deccan” is a magnificent mausoleum inspired by the Taj Mahal of Agra. The mausoleum is in the centre of an enclosure. Trees, fountains and water channels lined the pathway leading to it. Open pavilions are on the three sides. As we entered the complex, we were awestruck at seeing a replica of the Taj Mahal. Our guide explained to us the history and details of the monument. A compare and contrast between The Taj and Bibi ka Maqbara would have fetched us full marks in an examination after hearing the details from the guide.

Comparison of Taj Mahal and Bibi Ka Maqbara

Shajahan built the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Azam Shah (Aurangzeb’s son and Shahjahan’s grandson) built the Bibi Ka Maqbara in memory of his mother Rabia -ul- Durani, also known as Dilras Banu Begum between 1651-1661 AD. The Bibi ka Maqbara is built on a raised platform with four minarets at the corners. The dome of the Maqbara is smaller than that of the Taj with minarets that are shorter.

Minaret of Bibi Ka Maqbara, Aurangabad @Rafiq Somani

The dome and the lower body of the structure are made in marble with intricate carvings. The middle portion is made of basaltic trap, covered with plaster that mimics a marble finish. Since marble is expensive this was probably a cost-saving measure, unlike the Taj made entirely of marble. The Taj was built at a cost of 32 million rupees while the Bibi ka Maqbara was built at a cost of Rs. 665,283 and 7 annas. Thus, the maqbara is often referred to as the ‘Poor Man’s Taj’.  The tomb of the Mughal king’s mother rests inside the mausoleum. The light filtering through the gaps of intricate carvings and patterns provided a beautiful aura to the inside of the mausoleum.

  • Bibi ka Maqbara, Aurangabad

Panchakki or Watermill

The sun was now at the horizon as we left the Bibi ka Maqbara and headed to see the Panchakki or Watermill. It is an engineering marvel of how energy from the moving water, in underground pipes, rotates a sizeable grinding stone (chakki). The stone would ground the grains into flour that was fed to the pilgrims. Through a small opening, we could see the grinding stone and a fan which are functional even today. Located in the complex were a banyan tree more than 600 years old and a water tank. A mosque and several shops selling jazzy, colourful, artificial stone jewellery and artefacts were located inside the premises. It was now dark, and we hurried to our hotel where a Christmas Eve dinner awaited us.


The next day after breakfast, we headed to Daulatabad (City of Fortune) located 14 km. from Aurangabad. As we approached the town, we could see the majestic and imposing fort on top of a mountain peak. My guide book mentioned how this fort was once known as Deogiri, a hill of gods. This fort is also unique because it is a combination of ground and hill fort that is a rarity in India.  This fort is impressive and stands out amongst several which we have seen due to its strategic design and planning as a defence against enemy attack. It is one of the impregnable forts that have moats (a deep, broad ditch filled with water), dark passages with its zig zag entrances to confuse the enemy. Arrangements of gates were also not opposite each other so that elephants of the enemy couldn’t barge in by breaking them down.

Daulatabad Fort
Inside Daulatabad Fort@Rafiq Somani

Inside the Fort

As we entered the fort, we saw the fortification walls called ramparts (kots). The first was Mahakot which has eight gates. A watchtower in the Mahakot had a balcony with three arches. On moving further, we saw a huge water tank called Hathi Haud (Elephant’s Tank) with steps on three sides leading to it. The water tank was a source of water for the township as well as the moats. Our guide book prompted us to clap here as it produced an echo. 

Mahakot, Daulatabad Fort, @Rafiq Somani
A Watchtower in the Mahakot, Daulatabad @Rafiq Somani

Bharat Mata Mandir

Near the Hathi Haud was the Bharat Mata Mandir. On entering the dome-shaped gate, we saw a vast courtyard whose peripheries had rows of carved pillars. The image of Bharat Mata installed after India got independence is its salient feature. From the courtyard, we could see the upper portions of the hill fort.

Bharat Mata Mandir, Daulatabad @Rafiq Somani

Chand Minar

On exiting the temple, we saw a tall tower or minaret with three floors called the Chand Minar. It is 65-metre-high and is second in height to the Qutub Minar of Delhi. Glazed tiles imported from Persia covered it earlier , but now most have fallen with just a couple of them bearing testimony.

Chand Minar, Daulatabad Fort @Rafiq Somani

 The minaret was from where the call for prayers (azaan) was given for faithful to assemble for namaz. The museum is near the minar. It had several excavated historical pieces of idols and sculptures on display.

Chini Mahal

After the Mahakot we now saw the next rampart, the Kalakot. Inside we saw a building which was the Chini Mahal or Chinese Palace. It is so-called because in earlier times it was decorated with coloured tiles from China. It was used a prison for royal captives. Close by was another building the abode of the royals called Nizamshahi Palace.

Chini Mahal, Chinese Palace, Daulatabad Fort @Rafiq Somani

Mendha Tope

Near these palaces, we saw an elevated bastion on which rested a huge canon called Mendha Tope. A ram’s head at the rear end gives it the name. Called the Qila-Shikan- Tope or fort-breaking canon it could rotated in all directions.


The moat, which is an engineering marvel, was filled with water with two bridges across it originally. In earlier times the bridges would be sunk into water infested with crocodiles. This prevented the enemies from entering the fort. The chiselled rock around the moat was so smooth that even a slithering snake couldn’t scale the height forget enemy soldiers!

The Andhari

After crossing the moat, we passed an underground zig-zag passage and ascended a staircase. The Andhari or passage of darkness was designed to confuse the enemy and mislead them. Death was almost inevitable as the enemy couldn’t escape from diverse defence techniques used: like being pelted with stones, having scalding water or oil poured on them or running towards light only to realise that a fall in the moat was inevitable.

12 Windows or Baradari

The Baradari is an octagonal palace located at the peak of the hill. It is so-called because of its 12 arch-shaped windows. It provided a panoramic view of the lower portions of the fort, as well as the town.

Baradari, Daulatabad Fort @Rafiq Somani

The Cave

Ahead of the Baradari was the meditation cave of saint Janaradan Swami . He meditated here and was blessed by darshan of Sri Dattatreya, one of the Hindu Gods. One can see the footprints of these holy personalities here.

Meditation Cave of Saint Janaradan Swami, Daulatabad Fort @Rafiq Somani

Right at the top of the fort were the Kala Pahad and Durga canons. By now, we were drained and tired after all that climbing. Water bottles were empty, and snacks gorged. Our only saviour was mint candies to suck on. It made us realise how difficult it must have been for the enemies to conquer this fort. There are forts, and there is Daulatabad! Simply invincible.

Food Stalls

On descending the fort, we headed to the food stalls on the roadside and stuffed ourselves with water and whatever was available. What caught my fancy was the fresh fruits like guavas, figs, custard apple for which Daulatabad is known.

Khuldabad- Tomb of Aurangzeb

After leaving Daulatabad, we proceeded to Khuldabad, which is where we saw the tomb of the Mughal King Aurangzeb. It is located at the complex of a Dargah or shrine of Sufi saint Sheikh Zainuddin. As per his wishes, the tomb was built only with a few rupees that he had earned by stitching caps. Our guide mentioned that his tombstone is inscribed in Persian with the following lines, “No marble sheets should shield me from the sky as I lie there one with earth.” A marble jaali or screen was erected around his grave by Lord Curzon, but no roof covers it.

Aurangzeb’s Tomb, Khuldabad @Rafiq Somani

After leaving Khuldabad, we headed for Ellora. But that is another story.

Nearest Airport: Aurangabad, which is an architectural hub, has an airport.
Distances: Pune Aurangabad: 235 km
Mumbai Aurangabad: 327 km
Where to Stay: MTDC has a property which has decent accommodation. You can do a net search for accommodation as per budget.

This travelogue was first published in Corporate Tycoons Magazine, Jan 2017.